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兒童的足部變化

兒童由出生開始,身體各個部份處於成長階段。腳部於不同時期亦會出現變化。

Newborn (0-6 months)

  • At Newborn, the baby's foot structure is not mature and there is no rigid bone structure. The cartilage tissue is unable to support the body weight.
  • The foot consists of 22 bones. They are wrapped around by the subcutaneous tissue and fat for protecting the incompletely developed foot bones.
  • The length of the five toes is similar and the arch has not yet developed in this stage.

Start to Crawling (7-10 months)

  • The baby needs to raise and rotate the head to the left and right for crawling. It also needs the strength of the shoulders and wrists to support the whole upper body. Therefore, it is beneficial to strengthen their joints of the hands, feet and neck and the muscle of the abdomen, neck and limbs. Exercise on small muscles will promote bone growth, enhance physical strength and lay the foundation for future movements.

Start to walking (11-18 months)

  • The baby will try to stand after the baby get used to crawl as the mind, muscles and nerves mature. Then, they will have the first step of their life. Most babies will know how to walk at age 9-18 month.
  • 由於幼童開始學習走路,下肢開始要適應承受身體重量,膝部在此階段會呈O形狀。
  • At the beginning of walking, the gait is mostly like a penguin. During walking, they will swing left and right which mean they are not stable.
  • Appropriate shoes for school should be designed so that the baby's feet can sense the floor during walking. The design should protect the feet while ensure that the shoes do not hinder them from learning to walk.
  • 建議家長為了讓子女更快學走路而購買學行車。1999年一份大學的研究指出,嬰兒經常使用學行車較沒有使用學行車的嬰兒,在體格及智力上較低。家長只要適當地輔助,鼓勵嬰兒自己努力嘗試,他們自然而然地自己走路的。

Steady to walk (19-36 months)

  • At this stage, walking will gradually stabilizes and the time for the feet to bear the weight of the body increases accordingly.
  • Young children have a thick layer of fat covering the arch of the foot, called the "fake flat feet". In addition, there will be more obvious hindfoot valgus and X-legs.
  • For the choice of footwear, it is recommended that the heel of the shoe should be rigid enough to control the heel. The material of the upper should also be highly breathable (for example, using microfiber, cowhide, etc.) to reduce the chance of fungal infection. Because the forefoot of the young child is more wide, the toe box of the shoe should be wide enough to allow movement between the toes.

Foot type change period (3-5 years old)

  • At this stage, the fat layer at the bottom of the feet gradually absorbed and disappeared. The arch of the foot began to appear. At the same time, the angle of the hindfoot and the X-legs began to decrease.
  • 此階段家長將察覺到小朋友在跑步時有時會不穩,其中一個原因是X形腿令膝關節內側互相碰撞而導致的。
  • For the insole, in addition to the appropriate arch curvature, also pay attention to the softness of the insole. In general, the arch support insole used for daily walking should be harder. The material of insole which is for sports is more elastic to provide good cushioning and shocking absorption.
  • In order to simulate the growth of child's bone structure, parents are advised to choose the shoes with rigid heel cup which will reduce the deviation angle of the hind foot and the X-leg.

<矯形師的小TIPS> 小朋友的足部仍處於發育期,如有扁平足等足形問題,除了穿著矯形鞋托/鞋墊外,亦鼓勵多做足部肌肉強化運動,刺激腳部/腳底肌肉成長。以遊戲方式增加趣味性是一個令小朋友肯持續做運動的好方法。

Foot muscle strengthening exercise 1 - Adding fun on the exercise

Foot muscle strengthening exercise 2

穩步成長期 (6歲或以上)

  • 6歲或以上的小童足部及膝部結構應與成年人相似。
  • X形腿現象憑消失,膝關節之間應有大約一隻手指的闊度。
  • 此階段較易分辨小童有否flat feetandX形腳等形態偏差問題,這亦是足部矯正及預防形態偏差的黃金時期。
  • 建議家長應帶同小朋友到有關專業人士進行足部檢查,如小童有較明顯的扁平足問題,或需度腳訂造鞋墊予以矯正,以防止將來偏差程度惡化。

正視小朋友足部偏差,別錯過矯正最佳時機

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